Sunday, 10 February 2019

IGBT & Its Application in Power Quality

An insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is a three-terminal power semiconductor device primarily used as an electronic switch which, as it was developed, came to combine high efficiency and fast switching. 

It consists of four alternating layers (P-N-P-N) that are controlled by a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gate structure without regenerative action. Although the structure of the IGBT is topologically the same as a thyristor with a 'MOS' gate (MOS gate thyristor), the thyristor action is completely suppressed and only the transistor action is permitted in the entire device operation range. It switches electric power in many applications: variable-frequency drives (VFDs), electric cars, trains, variable speed refrigerators, lamp ballasts, air-conditioners and even stereo systems with switching amplifiers.


IGBT comparison table [1]
Device characteristicPower bipolarPower MOSFETIGBT
Voltage ratingHigh <1kVHigh <1kVVery high >1kV
Current ratingHigh <500AHigh > 500AHigh >500A
Input driveCurrent ratio hFE
20-200
Voltage VGS
3-10V
Voltage VGE
4-8V
Input impedanceLowHighHigh
Output impedanceLowMediumLow
Switching speedSlow (┬Ás)Fast (ns)Medium
CostLowMediumHigh
IGBT Applications: Industrial

IGBT industrial applications are due to their use in driving motors. Availability of the IGBT in the early 1980s enabled development of cost-effective ASDs (Adjustable speed drives) for motors. These drives reduce energy consumption by more than 40%. Two-thirds of the electricity in the world is used to run motors, so IGBT technology has had a huge impact on energy consumption. 

These applications include:

Industrial Motor Drives
Adjustable Speed Drives for Motor Control
Pulse Width Modulated ASD
Factory Automation
Robotics
Welding
Induction Heating
Milling and Drilling Machines
Metal and Paper Mills
Electrostatic Precipitators
Textile Mills
Mining and Excavation
IGBT Optimization for Industrial Applications

IGBT Technology in Power Quality World

The versatile and adaptive design possibility of the IGBT system in all the areas where Power Quality is a mandatory requirement such as, 

  • Power Factor Improvement using Static Condenser(AVG) using IGBT Technology
  • Harmonics Mitigation by Active Harmonic Mitigator (AHM) - Voltage Source Converter using IGBT Technology
  • Unbalance Compensation(AUG) (Negative Sequence) using IGBT Technology
  • Active Front End DRIVES using IGBT Technology 
  • Active Front End UPS (Uninterrupted Power  Supply) using IGBT Technology
  • Voltage Dip/Sag & Surge Protection using IGBT Technology(Series Compensation)
  • Industrial Power Automation solutions for Power Supplies using IGBT Technology
  • Special DRIVES for LOCO applications using IGBT  Technology
  • High Frequency and Higher Power Quality conversions for AVIATION Applications

And many more..

Conclusion

From the Power Factor improvement and Drive application to Voltage Dip / Surge correction, the IGBT Technology has it all. India is focusing on a Better Power Quality more than any other country in the world currently. 

For Advanced Power  Quality products Study & Completely Automated Report:  

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